05_Matisse_PlumBlossoms.jpg COLOR and VALUE
Henri Matisse
What is color? Color is light, reflected light. Each artist uses it in their own way. Color is it's own language. Color can be symbol.
Value is the measure of light to dark for color or B&W. Value can set mood, temper, feeling and illusion of depth.

John Gibson, monochromatic (pretty much)
Color and Value Vocabulary

Cast shadow
Shadow core
Reflected light
Value scale
Chroma scale
Color scale
Rim light

John Gibson, use of complements

The lightness or darkness of a color. A color’s value can be altered by
adding white to make tints or black to make shades of the color.

The relative lightness or darkness of something.
4 things value does:
1) show form or give form to shape, 2d - 3d
2) depth and space
3) show or develop mood or expression
4) exhibit a higher order of thinking.
*Consistency in shading makes value work.
Value scale:
A series of blocks showing the gradual increase of shading
An Italian word designating the relative contrast of dark and
light in a drawing, painting or print. Artists use chiaroscuro to create
spatial depth and volumetric forms through slight gradations in the
intensity of light and shadow.
A three-dimensional object or, in an artwork, the representation of a
three-dimensional object, defined by contour, height, depth, and width.
A way of showing gradual changes in lightness or darkness in a
drawing or painting. Shading helps make a picture look more threedimensional.
Techniques include blending, stippling, hatching, and
*Be consistent. establish a light source.
Color wheel: A circular chart that shows primary, secondary, and intermediate
colors in an order that illustrates progression through the spectrum and
relationships among colors.
Primary colors: The three colors (blue, red, and yellow) from which other
colors are made. The primary colors cannot be made from other colors.
Secondary color: A color created by mixing two primary colors in equal
proportions. The secondary colors are orange (made from red and
yellow), green (made from blue and yellow), and violet (made from red
and blue).
Tertiary or Intermediate colors: Colors created when a primary color (red,
yellow, or blue) is mixed with a secondary color (orange, green, or violet).
Hue: Another word for color.
Intensity: The brightness or dullness of a color. A color's intensity is highest,
or most pure, when it is not mixed with another color. Colors that contain
traces of other colors or of neutrals have lower intensity.

Shade: A dark value of a color made by adding black to the color.
Tint: A light value of a color created by adding the color to white.
Color family: A group of related colors. For example, warm colors and cool
colors are each color families.
Cool colors: Related colors that range from green through blue and violet.
Cool colors bring to mind cool objects, places and feelings.
Warm colors: Related colors that range from red through orange and yellow.
Warm colors remind people of warm objects, places, and feelings.
Complementary colors: Colors that contrast with one another.
Complementary colors are opposite one another on the color wheel.
Also called contrasting colors.
Analogous colors: Colors that are next to each other on the color wheel (for
example, yellow, and yellow-orange). Also called related colors.
Monochrome: A painting, drawing, or photograph using tints and shades of
the same hue.
Neutrals: A word used for black, white, and tints and shades of gray. Some
designers also consider tints and shades of brown to be neutrals.
Palette: A flat board on which a painter holds and mixes colors. Can refer to
the range of colors used in a particular artwork, or a selection of colors
most often used by a particular artist.
Colorist: An artist who uses color with great skill.
Color scheme: A plan for combining colors in a work of art.
Monochromatic color scheme: A color scheme based on the tints and
shades of one color.
John Gibson, a warm color scheme

Analogous color scheme: A color scheme based on colors that are next to
each other on the color wheel.
Complementary color scheme: A color scheme based on the use of two
complementary colors.
Split complementary color scheme: A color scheme that uses three
colors—a color and the two colors on either side of it’s complement (for
example: green, red violet and red orange).
Triadic color scheme: A color scheme that uses three colors that are equally
spaced around the color wheel (for examaple: red orange, yellow green,
and blue violet). The primary colors form a triad. The secondary colors
form a triad.

Joan Synder used color in many different ways, mixed, straight, thick, thin, runny, dry and wet.

Jack Tworkov was one of the original Abstract Expressionist painters of the New York School. In his late career he was doing more non-objective geometric work. this painting has how many colors? 1 background, 2 light pinkish, 3 dark violet red and 4 the whitish marks so that's at least 4 colors, mixtures of red, white and maybe some blues or crimsons?

Value is the measure of light and dark. It is measured on a value scale. It can be black and white or color.
George Innes Montclair NJ-an example of value in a landscape
There are different types of value — black & white, color, Intensity and chroma value scales. Color is made from tints and shades. Intensity is a color + white. Chroma is each compliment mixed together until a neutral or gray is obtained. To obtain realistic results use no outlines as in the egg drawing. This is one reason the Innes paintings are so believable. Using value and value changes produces depth and space as well as 3 dimensions.

gibsonfeature_w.jpgJohn Gibson Paints Circular objects. These are balls. what makes them special is the lighting which always affects the color. Color is light, right? yeah Color is light or pigment. Pigment is what is used to paint this, the material. Light is the color or the thing color pigment may b trying to mimic.

Cool greens with highlights that are warm. The yellows in the reflections tend to warm the picture up. Green tends to be a color that with added yellow can be warmed up. It is normally a cool color. There may be some reds used here to shade the glass marbles also. red and green tend to make a brownish shade. Do you see one here?

The blues below are mixed or side by side with warm yellows and oranges. These tend to tone the blue down a bit. Again, notice the reflections and the way the artist has used warmer color to hold the marble on to the paper and thus in the space.

How is color measured?
Color is measured in color scales using tints and shades, intensity scales measuring brightness with the use of white, and chroma scales using complements-B/O,Y/P&G/R.

A value scale containing both black and white and color.


Beach Dogs. A simple painting that uses value in the form of shading and shadow. The artist has produced depth and space by using values.This is an example of a direct light source (frontal). Notice the shadows in the saucer. Also notice the shadow or reflection on the table surface. Does this look correct to you?Shading and light source

Color is mixed by adding a little bit of color at a time. This way the artist can control the mix or change.
Chroma is color. A chroma scale is how a color is neutralized or grayed out. Every color has a complement diagonally across from itself on the color wheel.Here we have a color wheel showing all the different types of color.


A color scale. A color scale is made from mixing tints and shades. Notice the black and white scale.
An intensity scale measures a colors Intensity or brightness. This would be adding white or a lighter color the the hue.
A chroma scale deals with complements and neutralizing color. By mixing complements say red and green, in successive amounts the colors should be grayed out . On a color wheel these colors mixed at the should produce gray. The intersection is the middle or center of the color wheel. this was a favorite vehicle used by the impressionist painters.

Colour_theory_intro-image-1.png Colour_theory_intro-image-4.png

These are chroma scales.
NissaKinder.jpg andy-warhol-marilyn.JPG
Color Scale adding Black And White Andy Warhol

Picasso And Braque - The first pictures in a cubist style were Monochromatic
LindsayA-Monochromatic.jpg factory49-dean.jpg
Monochromatic student work

PROJECT- Color Scale/MonoChromatic

Above is Mona. She is being showered with different tones. Like in music the lightness or darkness of a color can be referred to as a tone. The first picture is basic b/w and gray tones. The second is color intensity or the brighter tones of color. The third is a mix of the two.